Transgender (TG) people are identified as a key population group. They are at high risk of transmitting and acquiring HIV. Stigma is vested upon them due to their gender identity. Therefore, it is essential to address those factors associated with stigma among TG to take action to minimize them. To determine the correlates of behaviour related stigma among TG in Western province. A cross sectional study with an analytical component was conducted among TG population in Western province, Sri Lanka. Fourty eligible participants were recruited for the study. Sampling method was respondent driven sampling. “Behavior related stigma Scale”, a tool developed and validated by the investigators to assess behaviour-related stigma among key populations and a separate questionnaire to assess the correlates of stigma which was also developed by the investigators were used for data collection. Correlates of behaviour-related stigma among TG were determined. Adjusted Odd’s ratios were used for the multivariate analysis. Experience of harassment ever from the society (p = 0.018, aOR = 17.2, 95% CI: 1.6 – 183.9), gaining knowledge on HIV/AIDS from their peers (p = 0.023, aOR= 0.068, 95% CI: 0.007 – 0.69_ and receiving hormone therapy for gender affirmation (p = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.9 – 31.2) were associated with high level of behaviour related stigma among TG in Western province with statistical significance. There are factors associated with behaviour related stigma among TG which can be modified. Awareness programmes needs to be conducted to the general population regarding the importance of non-harassment of TG community. Education regarding HIV/ AIDS should be done to propel including TG population.


Behaviour Related Stigma, Transgender, Gender Identity, Western Province Sri lanka,


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Chandimal. D. (2014a). Analyzing the Culture of Transphobia. Equal Ground: Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  2. Chandimal. D. (2014b). Looking at the Discrimination Faced by LGBT Persons in Sri Lanka. Equal Ground, Sri Lanka.
  3. Fernando, S., Wanniarachchi, S., & Vidanapathirana, J., (2018). Montage of Sexuality in Sri Lanka, College of Community Physicians of Sri Lanka, United Nations Population Fund, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  4. Ford, K., Wirawan, D.N., Sumantera, G.M., Sawitri, A.A.S., & Stahre, M. (2004). Voluntary HIV Testing, Disclosure, And Stigma Among Injection Drug Users in Bali, Indonesia. AIDS Education and Prevention, 16(6), 487-498. https://doi.org/10.1521/Aeap.16.6.487.53789
  5. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity. Simon & Schuster, New York
  6. Grossman, A.H., & D’augelli, A.R. (2006). Transgender Youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(1), 111-128. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v51n01_06
  7. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, (2014). Reduction of HIV Related Stigma and Discrimination, Guidance Note, Geneva, Switzerland.
  8. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2015). UNAIDS Terminology Guidelines 2015, Geneva, Switzerland.
  9. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2018a). Fact Sheet – World AIDS Day 2018, Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved January 05, 2019, From https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet
  10. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2023). Key Populations, Geneva, Switzerland.
  11. Link, B.G., & Phelan, J.C. (2006). Stigma and Its Public Health Implications. The Lancet, 367(9509), 528-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68184-1
  12. Lombardi, E.L. & Servellen., G.V. (2000). Correcting Deficiencies in HIV/AIDS Care for Transgendered Individuals. Journal of the Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 11(5), 61-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-3290(06)60385-3
  13. Logie, C.H., Lacombe-Duncan, A., Kenny, K.S., Levermore, K., Jones, N., Marshall, A., & Newman, P.A. (2017). Associations between Police Harassment and HIV Vulnerabilities among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Jamaica. Health and Human Rights, 19(2), 147.
  14. Ministry of Health, Nutrition & Indegenous Medicine (2016). Programme for Ending AIDS by 2025 in Sri Lanka, Circular No 01 - 51/ 2016, Sri Lanka. Colombo.
  15. National STD/AIDS Control Programme. (2018a). Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey Among Key Populations at Higher Risk of HIV in Sri Lanka (2017/2018) – Report, Ministry of Health, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  16. National STD/AIDS Control Programme. (2015). Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey among Key Populations at Higher Risk of HIV in Sri Lanka (2014) – Report, Ministry of Health, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  17. Rorondi, N.K., Scanion, K., Kaay, M., Travers, R., & Travers, A. (2013). Nonprescribed Hormone use and Self-Performed -Surgeries: “Do-It Yourself” Transitions in Transgender Communities in Ontario, Canada. American Journal of Public Health, 103 (10). https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301348
  18. Sughra, U., & Imran, M. (2016). Transgender: Stigma, Discrimination and Social Exclusion, Asian Pacific Journal of Health Science, 3(4S), 100-101. https://doi.org/10.21276/Apjhs.2016.3.4S.15
  19. Testa, R.J., Jimenez, C.L., & Rankin, S. (2014). Risk and Resilience during Transgender Identity Development: The Effects of Awareness and Engagement with other Transgender People on Affect, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 18(1), 31-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2013.805177
  20. United Nations (2015). Transforming our World, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/Content/Documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.Pdf
  21. Verbeek, M.J., Hommes, M.A., Stutterheim, S.E., Van Lankveld, J.J., & Bos, A.E. (2020). Experiences with Stigmatization among Transgender Individuals after Transition: A Qualitative Study in the Netherlands. International Journal of Transgender Health, 21(2), 220-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/26895269.2020.1750529
  22. World Health Organization. (2014). Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations, Geneva, Switzerland.