This study has considered six steel scrap recycling plants, tagged A, B, C, D, E, F. The production process for each of the plants considered was separately observed and recorded. The investigation report revealed that none of the plant was following the due process involved in modern steel scrap recycling. Hence, a sustainable production flow system, deemed to be effective is proposed in this paper. The production data of each section was collected alongside the manpower and pollution control data. The data were analyzed mathematically using the models developed in this study. From the results obtained, pollution control was least in melting section with pollution control index of 33.8%, and highest in heat treatment with index of 51.9%. Comparatively, pollution control was least (37%) in plant A and highest (50.6%) in plant F. Also, manpower was least (32.4%) in plant A and highest (44.6%) in plant E. Mechanization was least (55.4%) in plant E and highest (73.2%) in plant B. Findings further indicated that melting section was running almost full capacity in Plant E (348 against 350 tons per day) and Heat treatment section was also running almost full capacity (342 against 350 tons per day in Plant C). The rest were running much below their design capacities.


Heat Treatment, Plant, Pollution Control, Manpower, Mechanization, Steel Scrap Recycling,


Download data is not yet available.


  1. T. Norgate, (2013) Metal recycling: The need for a life cycle approach, Minerals Down Under Flagship, Australia. www.csiro.au
  2. T.E. Norgate, W.J. Rankin, (2002). The role of metals in sustainable development, Green Processing, 49-55.
  3. T. Norgate, D. Langberg, Environmental and economic and economic aspects of charcoal use in steelmaking, ISIJ International, 49 (2009) 587.
  4. Canadian Steel Producers Association, (2007) Benchmarking energy intensity in the Canadian steel industry, Canadian Steel Producers Association Natural Resources, Canada.
  5. R. Fruehan, O. Fortini, H. Paxton, R. Brindle, (2000) Theoretical minimum energies to produce steelm, Report to the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, Washington.
  6. M. Reuter, K. Heisanen, U.Boin, A. Van Schaik, E. Verhoef, Y. Yang & G. Georgalli, (2005) The metrics of material and metal ecology: harmonizing the resource, technology and environmental cycles, Elsevier.
  7. R. Quinkertz, G. Rombach & D. Liebig, A scenario to optimise the energy demand of aluminium production depending on the recycling quota. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 33 (2001) 217-234.
  8. M.E. Henstock, (1996) The recycling of non-ferrous metals. International Council on Metals and the Environment. Ottawa.
  9. P.R. Bruggink, Aluminium Scrap Supply and Environment Impact Model. Recycling of Metals and Engineered Materials, John Wiley & Sons, (2000) 809-822.
  10. C. Satlow, D.I.R.A. Zurita, I.T. Pretz, Copper in different types of buildings as a secondary deposit, In TMS Fall 2002 Extraction and Processing Division Meeting on Recycling and Waste Treatment in Mineral and Metal Processing: Technical and Economic Aspects 16 (2002).
  11. P.R. Bruggink, K.J. Martchek, (2004) Worldwide recycled aluminum supply and environmental impact model. In Light Metals-Warrendale-Proceedings, TMS, 907-912.
  12. G. Brooks, Y. Pan, (2004) Developments in Steel Recycling Technology, Green Processing Conference (AusIMM), Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Fremantle, 65-72.
  13. Y. Matsuno, I. Daigo, Y. Adachi, Application of Markov chain model to calculate the average number of times of use of a material in society, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12, (2007) 34-39.
  14. J. Davis, R. Geyer, J. Ley, J. He, R. Clift, A. Kwan, M. Sansom, T. Jackson, Time-dependent material flow analysis of iron and steel in the UK, Part 2 Scrap generation and recycling, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 51 (2007) 118-140.
  15. I. E. Ohimain, Scrap Iron and Steel Recycling in Nigeria, Greener Journal of. Environmental Management and Public Safety, 2 (2013) 1-9.
  16. V.R. Gandhewar, S.V. Bansod, & A.B. Borade, Induction furnace: A review, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3 (2011) 277-284.