Memory is an important aspect of cognition. Recall and recognition can be used as experimental tasks for assessing memory. Non-Word Recall taps phonological short term memory. The non-word recall is language sensitive hence there is a need to investigate this ability in native and on-native speakers.  The current study aimed to study immediate and delayed recall in native and non-native speakers. A total of 30 participants (15 native and 15 non-native speakers) in the age range of 18-30 years participated in the study. 15 words and 15 non-words were presented in Malayalam and the participants were asked to recall the stimulus immediately after the stimulus presentation and 2 days post stimulus presentation. The results of the showed that the performance on recall varied for words and non-words. Performance on Recall was better for native compared to non-native speakers.


Phonological Short Term Memory Native Advantage Recall Retention Transfer


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Atkins, P.W.B., Baddeley, A.D. (1998). Working memory and distributed vocabulary learning, Applied Psycholinguistics, 19(4), 537-552. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400010353
  2. Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J. (1974). Working memory, Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, 47–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60452-1
  3. French, L.M. (2006). Phonological Working Memory and L2 Acquisition: A Developmental Study of Quebec Francophone Children Learning ENGLISH, Edwin Mellen Press, New York,
  4. Gyllstad, H., Sundqvist, P., Sandlund, E., Kallkvist, M. (2023). Effects of Word Definitions on Meaning Recall: A Multisite Intervention in Language-Diverse Second Language English Classrooms, Language Learning, 73(2), 403-444. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12527
  5. Kujala, A., Alho, K., Service, E., Ilmoniemi, R. J., Connolly, J.F. (2004). Activation in the anterior left auditory cortex associated with phonological analysis of speech input: localization of the phonological mismatch negativity response with MEG, Cognitive Brain Research, 21(1), 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.05.011
  6. Schweppe, J., Barth, S., Ketzer-Noltge, A., & Rummer, R. (2015). Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?, Frontiers in psychology, 6, 63. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00063
  7. Service, E. (2013). Working memory in second language acquisition: phonological short-term, The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1287
  8. Service, E., Kohonen, V. (1995). Is the relation between phonological memory and foreign-language learning accounted for by vocabulary acquisition?, Applied Psycholinguistics, 16(2), 155–172.
  9. Stalhammar, J., Hellström, P., Eckerstrom, C., & Wallin, A. (2022). Neuropsychological Test Performance Among Native and Non-Native Swedes: Second Language Effects. Archives of clinical neuropsychology: the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 37(4), 826–838. https://doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acaa043