Durability and chemical resistance of nanoparticles fly ash and silica fume belite cement pastes against sulfate and chloride aggressive media- Part II

Darweesh H.H.M
Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.


Plum Analytics


The durability (chemical resistence) of the Portland cement (OPC), belite cement (BC) and the optimum belite cement (B4), which their physical and chemo/mechanical properties were perviously investigated in Part I, against 4 % MgSO4 and 4% MgCl2 solutions up to 12 months in terms of compressive strength, total sulfate and total chloride was evaluated and studied. Results showed that the optimum belite cement (B4) containing 15 % High pulverized fly ash (HPFA) and 5 % Silica fume (SF) could be resisted up to 6 months, while that of BC could be withstood only up to 5 months, and the OPC could not resist more than three months of immersion in 4% MgSO4 solution. The compressive strength values exhibited by the samples immesed in sulfate solution at 3, 5 and 6 months of immersion were 83.81, 76.38 and 91.13 MPa, respectively. The same trend was displayed when the same samples were exposed to 4% MgCl2 solution. The compressive strength values exhibited by the same samples exposed to chloride solution at 3, 5 and 6 months of immersion were 84.49, 82.23 and 93.32 MPa, respectively. The total sulfate and chloride contents were enhanced with immesion time up to 12 months, but their values were the minimum with B4 and the maximum with OPC, while with BC were the medium. The optimum cement batch (B4) achieved the highest resistance where it recorded the lowest values for sulfate and chloride ions, but the OPC exhibited the lowest resistance where it recorded the highest values of sulfate and chloride contents at all immersion ages till 12 months.


  • Nanomaterials,
  • Belite cement,
  • Fly ash,
  • Silica fume,
  • Durability,
  • Strength,
  • Total sulfate,
  • Total chloride
  • ...More


  1. J. Ren, Y. Lai, J. Gao, Exploring the influence of SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 175 (2018) 277–285.
  2. H. Zhao, K. Jiang, R. Yang, Y. Tang, J. Liu, Experimental and theoretical analysis on coupled effect of hydration, temperature and humidity in early-age cement-based materials, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 146 (2020) 118784.
  3. G. Li, H. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Deng, X. Liu, Z. Luo, Ground granulated blast-furnace slag/fly ash blends activated by sodium carbonate at ambient temperature, Construction and Building Materials, 291 (2021) 123378.
  4. G. Land, D. Stephan, The influence of nano-silica on the hydration of ordinary Portland cement, Journal of Materials Science, 47 (2012) 1011-1017.
  5. F. Kontoleontos, P.E. Tsakiridis, A. Marinos, V. Kaloidas, M. Katsioti, Influence of colloidal nanosilica on ultrafine cement hydration: physicochemical and microstructural characterization, Construction and Building Materials, 35 (2012) 347-360.
  6. T. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhang, X. Gao, C. Zhang, Q. Wu, Effect of fly ash microsphere on the rheology and microstructure of alkali-activated fly ash/slag pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, 109 (2018) 198–207.
  7. T. Yang, H. Zhu, Z. Zhang, Influence of fly ash on the pore structure and shrinkage characteristics of metakaolin-based geopolymer pastes and mortars, Construction and Building Materials, 153 (2017) 284–293.
  8. A. Adesina, Durability enhancement of concrete using nanomaterials: an overview, Materials Science Forum, 967 (2019) 221-227.
  9. H. Madani, A. Bagheri, T. Parhizkar, The pozzolanic reactivity of monodispersed nanosilica hydrosols and their influence on the hydration characteristics of Portland cement, Cement and Concrete Research, 42 (2012) 1563–1570.
  10. M. Heikal, Ali AI, M.N. Ismail, S. Awad, N.S. Ibrahim, Behavior of composite cement pastes containing silica nano-particles at elevated temperature, Construction and Building Materials, 70 (2014) 339-350.
  11. S.A.E. Aleem, M. Heikal, W.M. Morsi, Hydration characteristic, thermal expansion and microstructure of cement containing nano silica, Construction and Building Materials, 59 (2015) 151-160.
  12. Z. Giergiczny, Fly ash and slag, Cement and Concrete Research, 124 (2019) 105826.
  13. H.H.M. Darweesh, Characteristics of Portland Cement Pastes Blended with Silica Nanoparticles, To Chemistry Journal, 5 (2020) 1-14.
  14. H. Ozyildirim, C. Zegetosky, Laboratory investigation of nanomaterials to improve the permeability and strength of concrete, Virginia Transportation Research Council, (2010). https ://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/20230.
  15. Al-Safy R.A, (2015) Effect of Incorporation Techniques of Nanomaterials on Strength of Cement-based Materials‖, The 2nd International Conference of Buildings, Construction and Environmental Engineering (BCEE2-2015).
  16. P. Duan, C. Yan, W. Zhou, Influence of partial replacement of fly ash by metakaolin on mechanical properties and microstructure of fly ash geopolymer paste exposed to sulfate attack, Ceramics International, 42 (2016) 3504–3517.
  17. F. Zou, C. Hu, F. Wang, Y. Ruan, S. Hu, Enhancement of early-age strength of the high content fly ash blended cement paste by sodium sulfate and C-S–H seeds towards a greener binder, Journal of Cleaner Production, (2019) 118566.
  18. H.H.M. Darweesh, Nanomaterials: Classification and Properties-Part I, Nanoscience, 1 (2017) 1-11.
  19. J. Yang, J. Huang, Y. Su, X. He, H. Tan, W. Yang, B. Strnadel, Eco-friendly treatment of low-calcium coal fly ash for high pozzolanic reactivity: A step towards waste utilization in sustainable building material, Journal of Cleaner Production, 238 (2019) 117962.
  20. J. Yang, H. Hu, X. He, Y. Su, Y. Wang, H. Tan, H, Pan, Effect of steam curing on compressive strength and microstructure of high-volume ultrafine fly ash cement mortar, Construction and Building Materials, 266 (2021) 120894.
  21. S. Zhuang; Q. Wang, Inhibition mechanisms of steel slag on the early-age hydration of cement, Cement and Concrete Research 140 (2021) 106283.
  22. J. Zhang, H. Tan, M. Bao, X. Liu, Z. Luo, P. Wang, Low carbon cementitious materials: Sodium sulfate activated ultra-fine slag/fly ash blends at ambient temperature, Journal of Cleaner Production, 280 (2021) 124363.
  23. H. Bilal, T. Chen, M. Ren, X. Gao, A. Su, Influence of silica fume, metakaolin & SBR latex on strength and durability performance of pervious concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 275 (2021) 122124.
  24. H.H.M. Darweesh, Geopolymer cements from slag, fly ash and silica fume activated with sodium hydroxide and water glass, Interceram - International Ceramic Review, 66 (2017) 226-231.
  25. H.H.M. Darweesh, Physical and Chemo/Mechanical behaviors of fly ash and silica fume high β-belite cement pastes- Part I, NanoNext, 2 (2021) 1-15.
  26. H.H.M. Darweesh, Utilization of Ca–Lignosulphonate Prepared from Black Liquor Waste as a Cement Superplasticizer, Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research (JCMR), 1 (2014) 28–34.
  27. I.B. Topçu, Ö. Ateşin, Effect of high dosage lignosulphonate and naphthalene sulphonate based plasticizer usage on micro concrete properties, Construction and Building Materials, 120 (2016) 189-197.
  28. ASTM-C170-90, Standard test method for compressive strength of dimension stone, (1993) 828-830.
  29. H.H.M. Darweesh, Low Heat Blended Cements Containing Nanosized Particles of Natural Pumice Alone or in Combination with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, NanoProgress, 3 (2021) 38-46.
  30. H.H.M. Darweesh, Extraction of lignin from wastes of sugarcane bagasse and its utilization as an admixture for Portland cement, NanoNEXT, 2 (2021) 13-27.
  31. H.H.M. Darweesh, Utilization of Physalis Pith Ash as a Pozzolanic Material in Portland Cement Pastes, Biomaterials, 5 (2021) 1-9. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/jb
  32. H.H.M. Darweesh, Characterization of Coir Pith Ash Blended Cement Pastes, Research & Development in Material science, 15 (2021) 1630-1630.
  33. H.H.M. Darweesh, Utilization of Nano-Grain Size Particles of Natural Perlite Rock in Blended Cement-Part II: Durability Against Sulfate Attack, Research & Development in Material science, 14 (2021) 1512-1519.
  34. X. Jiang, Y. Zhang, R. Xiao, P. Polaczyk, M. Zhang, W. Hu, Y. Bai, B. Huang, A comparative study on geopolymers synthesized by different classes of fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures, Journal of Cleaner Production, 270 (2020) 122500.
  35. A.M. Neville, (2011) Properties of Concrete, (5th edn), Pearson Education Limited, Essex, UK. http://www.pearsoned.co.uk.
  36. S.A. Zareei, F. Ameri, F. Dorostkar, M. Ahmadi, Rice husk ash as a partial replacement of cement in high strength concrete containing micro silica: Evaluating durability and mechanical properties, Case Studies in Construction Materials, 7 (2017) 73-81.
  37. P.C. Hewlett, M. Liska, (2017) Lea’s chemistry of cement and concrete, (5th edn), London.
  38. M. Santhanam, M.D. Cohen, J, Olek, Sulfate attack research-whither now?, Cement and Concrete Research, 31 (2001) 845-851.
  39. M. Santhanam, M.D. Cohen, J. Olek, Mechanism of sulfate attack: A fresh look: Part I: Summary of experimental results, Cement and Concrete Research, 32 (2002) 915-921.
  40. H.H.M. Darweesh, Saw dust ash substitution for Portland cement pastes-Part II: Chemical resistance against sulfate attack, Indian Journal of Engineering, 17 (2020) 396-407. www.discoveryjournals.org
  41. P.K. Mehta, Sulfate attack on concrete separating myths from reality, American Concrete Institute (ACI), 22 (2000) 57-61.
  42. Y. Shen, D. Yang, M, Zhang, J. Qian, Active sulfate-rich belite sulfoaluminate cement, Advances in Cement Research, 29 (2017) 166–173.
  43. H.H.M. Darweesh, Hydration, Strength development and sulphate attack of some cement composites, World Applied Sciences Journal, 23 (2013) 137-144.
  44. K.K. Sideris, A.E. Sawa, J. Papayianni, Sulfate resistance and carbonation of plain and blended cements, Cement and Concrete Composites, 28 (2006) 47-56.
  45. A.B. Malkawi, M.F. Nuruddin, A. Fauzi, H. Almattarneh, B.S. Mohammed, Effects of alkaline solution on properties of the HCFA geopolymer mortars, Procedia Engineering, 148 (2016) 710–717.
  46. M.B. Kretzer, C. Effting, S. Schwaab, A. Schackow, Hybrid geopolymer-cement coating mortar optimized based on metakaolin, fly ash, and granulated blast furnace slag, Cleaner Engineering and Technology, 4 (2021) 100153.
  47. H. El-Didamony, H.H.M. Darweesh, R.M. Mostafa, Characteristics of pozzolanic cement pastes Part I: Physico-mechanical properties, Silicates Industriels, 73 (2008) 193-200.
  48. U. Sharma, L.P. Singh, B. Zhan, C.S. Poon, Effect of particle size of nanosilica on microstructure of C-S-H and its impact on mechanical strength, Cement and Concrete Composites, 97 (2019) 312–321.
  49. M. Nehdi, M, Hayek, Behavior of blended cement mortars exposed to sulfate solutions cycling in relative humidity, Cement and Concrete Research, 35 (2005) 731-742.
  50. H. Binici, O. Aksogan, Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cement, Cement and Concrete Composites, 28 (2006) 39-46.
  51. M. Wu. Y. Zhang, Y. Ji, G. Liu, C. Liu, W. She, W. Sun, Reducing environmental impacts and carbon emissions: Study of effects of superfine cement particles on blended cement containing high volume mineral admixtures, Journal of Cleaner Production, 196 (2018) 358–369.
  52. S. Riahi, A. Nemati, A.R. Khodabandeh, S, Baghshahi, The effect of mixing molar ratios and sand particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 240 (2020) 122223.
  53. M. Jalal, A. Pouladkhan, O.F. Harandi, D. Jafari, Comparative study on effects of Class F fly ash, nano silica and silica fume on properties of high performance self compacting concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 94 (2015) 90-104.
  54. Q. Chen, R. Ma, H. Li, Z. Jiang, H. Zhu, Z. Yan, Effect of chloride attack on the bonded concrete system repaired by UHPC, Construction and Building Materials, 272 (2021) 121971.
  55. M.H. Zhang, H, Li, Pore structure and chloride permeability of concrete containing nano-particles for pavement, Construction and Building Materials, 25 (2011) 608-616.
  56. J. Yang, Y. Su, X. He, H. Tan, Y. Jiang, L. Zeng, B. Strnadel, Pore structure evaluation of cementing composites blended with coal by-products: Calcined coal gangue and coal fly ash, Fuel Processing Technology, 181 (2018) 75–90.
  57. M. Saedi, K. Behfarnia, H. Soltanian, The effect of the blaine fineness on the mechanical properties of the alkali-activated slag cement, Journal of Building Engineering, 26 (2019) 100897.
  58. A. Ehsani, K. Shabani, M. Nili, A. Ehsani, K. Shabani, Influence of Nano-SiO2 and microsilica on concrete performance, (2010) http://www.clais se.info/Proce eding s.htm. Accessed March 31, 2020
  59. A.M. Diab, H.E. Elyamany, A.E.M. Abd Elmoaty, M.M. Sreh, Effect of nanomaterials additives on performance of concrete resistance against magnesium sulfate and acids, Construction and Building Materials, 210 (2019) 210-231.
  60. T. Ansari rad, J. Tanzadeh, A. Pourdada, Laboratory evaluation of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete modified with hybrid of nanomaterials, Construction and Building Materials, 232 (2020) 117211.
  61. T. Ji, Preliminary study on the water permeability and microstructure of concrete incorporating nano-SiO2, Cement and Concrete Research, 35 (2005) 1943-1947.
  62. C. Ma, B. Zhao, L. Wang, G. Long, Y. Xie, Clean and low-alkalinity one-part geopolymeric cement: Effects of sodium sulfate on microstructure and properties, Journal of Cleaner Production, 252 (2020) 119279.
  63. J.G. Jang, H.K Lee, Microstructural densification and CO2 uptake promoted by the carbonation curing of belite-rich Portland cement, Cement and Concrete Research, 82 (2016) 50–57.
  64. S. Maheswaran, S. Kalaiselvam, S.K.S. Saravana-Karthikeyan, C. Kokila, G.S. Palani, β-Belite cements (β-dicalcium silicate) obtained from calcined lime sludge and silica fume, Cement and Concrete Composites, 66 (2016) 57–65.




Download data is not yet available.

Plum Analytics