Preliminary Investigation of Inorganic and Organic Contaminants in Soils within Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria
This study aimed at the preliminary investigation of inorganic and organic contaminants in soils within Wukari metropolis and to assess the contamination status and metal bioavailability. Digested soil samples for total metals and fractionation were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations in triplicates using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while 5 Varian Bond Elu SI SPE cartridges was used for solid phase extraction and the soil sample extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. The percentage bioavailability of metals ranged from Fe: 13.81 – 98.85 %, Ni: 65.01 - 80.93 %, Cr: 34.82 – 77.19 %, Pb: 66.93 - 86.59 % and Co: 70.35 - 99.14 % respectively. The bioavailability of Fe, Ni, Pb and Co station ST3 which is an agricultural area were above 50.00%. This indicates that food crops grown in the area may be contaminated by the metals. Irrespective of sampling points, the distribution of metals in the soil samples generally followed the order Fe: residual > carbonate > exchangeable > oxidizable; Ni: exchangeable > carbonate > oxidizable > residual; Pb: exchangeable > residual > carbonate > oxidizable; Co: exchangeable > carbonate > oxidizable > residual. Organic contaminants such as Halo alkanes; bromodichloromethane (molecular weight 162.0 g/mol) and chloroform (molecular weight 118.0 g/mol) were detected in ST1 while, 1, 1, 2 trichloroethane (molecular weight 132.0 g/mol). Another contaminant phenol d5 was recorded in sample ST2, ST3 and ST4 respectively. BTEX compounds were also contaminants present in ST5 (Fuel station near some automobile workshops).
- P.A. Aloysius, S.A. Rufus, O.O. John, Evaluation of heavy metals in soils around auto mechanic workshop cluster in Markurdi, Central Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5 (2013) 298 – 306.
- S. McEldowney, Assessment and reclamation of contaminated land. Edited by Hester RE, Harrison RM, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2001, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 77 (2002) 1191 – 1192.
- J. Scullion, Remediating polluted soils, The Science of Nature, 93 (2006) 51–65.
- T.C. Vanbrummelen, C.A.M Vangestel, R.A. Verweij, Long-term toxicity of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the terrestrial isopods Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, (1996) 1199-1210.
- M. Srijata, R. Pranab, BTEX: A serious groundwater contaminant, Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5 (2011) 394-398.
- M. Aliyu, M. Bello, Determination of heavy metal in Automobile workshop in Kaduna, Journal of FTS, 43 (2004) 2385-2398.
- K.H. Tan, Environmental soil sciences. Marcel Dekker, New York: Marcel Dekker, Hardbound, Geoderma, (2000) 425.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (1999), METHOD 3050B. Acid digestion of sludges, sediments and soil, “Revision 2. Washington, D.C.
- G. Rauret, J.F. López-Sanchez, A. Sahuquillo, E, Barahona, M. Lachica, A.M Ure, Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM483), complemented by a three-year study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 2 (2000) 228–233.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Method 1668C: Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Water, Soil, sediment, biosolids, and tissue by HRGC/HRMS. Available at www.epa.gov/waterscience/methods
- M.L Vitosh, J.W Johnson, B. Mengel, (1995). Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendation for Corn, Soybean and Wheat, Extension bulletin E, New York.
- I. Alkorta, J. Hernandez-Alica, J.M Becerril, I. Amezaga, I. Albizu, C. Garbisu, Recent findings on the Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Environmentally Toxic Heavy Metals and Metalloids such as Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic, Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 3 (2004) 71-90.
- T. Vamerali, M. Bandiera, G. Mosca, Field Crops for Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Land. A Review, Environmental Chemistry Letters, 8 (2010) 1-17.
- J.K Pradhan, S. Kumar, Informal e-waste recycling: Environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21 (2014) 7913–7928.
- B.Y. Fosu-Mensah, A. Emmanuel, Y.T Dzidzo, N. Frank, Heavy metals concentration and distribution in soils and vegetation at Korle Lagoon area in Accra, Ghana, Cogent Environmental Science. 3 (2017) 1405887.
- WHO/FAO. (2001). Codex alimentarius commission. Food additives and contaminants. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, ALINORM 10/12A. Retrieved from www.transpaktrading.com/static/pdf/research/ achemistry/introTofertilizers.pdf.
- K.A Yusuf, Sequential extraction of lead, copper, cadmium and zinc in soils near Ojota waste site, Journal of Agronomy, 6 (2) (2007) 331-33.
- G. A. Oluwatson, O.D. Adeyolanu, T.O. Dauda, G.E. Akinbola, Levels and geochemical fractions of Cd, Pb and Zn in valley bottom soils of some urban cities in South-Western Nigeria, African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (2008) 3455–3465.
- S.I. Torri, R.S. Lavado, Dynamics of Cd, Cu and Pb added to soil through different kinds of sewage sludge, Journal of Waste Management, 28 (2008) 821-832.
- W.L.O. Jimoh, Y. Sabo. Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of Kano Metropolis, Nigeria, Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6 (2013) 87 – 91.
- B.N. Hikon, G.S. Ngantem, G.O. Egah, D.D. Bwede, Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils Impacted by Mining Activities in Akwana, Taraba State, Nigeria, Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences, 4 (2018) 287-312.
- M.O. Lisbeth, K.H. Henrik, E.J. Pernille, Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 201 (2008) 295–304.
- A. Giacalone, A. Gianguzza, S. Orecchioa, D. Piazzesea, G. Dongarra, Metals distribution in the organic and inorganic fractions of soil: a case study on soils from Sicily, Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability,17 (2005) 83–93.
- A.D.K. Banerjee, Heavy metals levels and solid phase speciation in street dust of Delhi, India, Environmental Pollution, 123 (2003) 95–105.
- S. Tokalioglu, K. Senol, B. Gokhan, Application of Three Stages Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Determination of Extractable Metal Content in Highway Soils, Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 27, (2003) 333 – 346.
- I.A. Okoro, T. Abii, Chemical Speciation of Minerals and Toxic Metals In Sediments from a Local Stream (Anya Stream) Umudike, Ikwuano L.G.A in Abia State in Southeastern Nigeria, Continental Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5 (2011) 13 – 19.
- C. Osu, A. Asuoha, N. Adaku, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Contamination of Soils in Automobile Mechanic Workshops in Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of American Science, 6 (2010) 244 – 246.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR) (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.ehp.qld.gov.au>btex-report on 13th August, 2018.
- Linda, Crampton (2017). Chloroform in the environment and its health dangers. Retrived from https://owlcation.com/stem/Chloroform-in-the-Environment-and-its-Dangers on 17th September, 2018.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (2016). Risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/risk-evaluation-carbon-tetrachloride
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR) (2000). Toxicological profile for phenol (update). Public Health Services, U.S. Department of Health and Human services. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov on 12th September, 2018.
- M. Iwata, Y. Eshima, H. Kagechika, H. Miyaura, The endocrine disruptors’ nonylphenol and octylphenol exert direct effects on T cells to suppress TH1 development and enhance TH2 development, Immunology Letters, 94 (1-2) (2004) 135-139.
- W. Jacek, M. Tadeusz, Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Water and Soil Using Solid Phase Microextraction, Chemia Analityczna, 47 (2003) 507-530.