Call for Papers - September 2021 Issue | Submission deadline: September 20, 2021 | Processing fee for publication: NIL

Effect of Catalyst Type on the Properties of Biodiesel from Jathropha and Moringa Oil Blend

Isaac A Bamgboye
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Blessing N Iyidiobu
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Dimensions

Plum Analytics

Abstract

Various methods of biodiesel production have been developed in the recent past to reduce production costs. These new approaches may have varying effects on ester quality. Thus an investigation is necessary to determine cost saving measures that do not compromise ester quality. This work examined the effects of a cost saving strategy on Biodiesel quality. This conservative method involved the transesterification of a Jathropha-Moringa oil blend using a blend of two primary alcohols. Three alkaline catalysts were also used. The reaction conditions were: Jathropha to Moringa oil blending ratio of 4:1; Methanol to ethanol blending ratio of 4:1; Alkaline catalyst concentration of 0.5 w/w %; reaction time of 40 minutes; stirring speed of 1000 rpm; Temperature of 60°C and an Alcohol to oil molar ratio of 7.5. Biodiesel samples were tested according to ASTM D6751 and AOCS guidelines. Results indicated that the density, iodine values, flash point and fire points of esters did not vary significantly as the experiment was repeated using three different alkaline catalysts. It also showed that the effect of NaOH, KOH and CaO were not always negative when they were significant. Lastly, the methods applied in this did not compromise ester quality with regard to observed fuel parameters.

Keywords

  • Cost,
  • Biodiesel,
  • Blending,
  • Quality,
  • Jatropha,
  • Moringa
  • ...More
    Less

References

  1. H.J. Berchmans, S. Hirata, Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. seed oil with a high content of free fatty acids, Bioresource technology, 99 (2008) 1716-1721.
  2. A.I. Bamgboye, O.O. Oniya, Fuel Properties of Loofah (Luffa Cylindrica L.) Biofuel Blended with Diesel, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6 (2012) 346-352.
  3. V.J. Gerpen, B. Shanks, R. Pruszko, D. Clements, G. Knothe, Biodiesel Production Technology, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, (2004) 37-47.
  4. M.C.G. Albuquerque, Y.L. Machado, A.E.B. Torres, D.C.S. Azevedo, C.L. Cavalcante, L. R. Firmiano, E.J.S. Parente, Properties of Biodiesel Oils Formulated Using Different Biomass Sources and Their Blends, Renewable Energy, 34 (2009) 857-859.
  5. S. Yusup, M.A. Khan, Base Catalyzed Transesterification of Acid Treated Vegetable Oil Blend for Biodiesel Production, Biomass and Bioenergy, 34 (2010) 1500-1504.
  6. M.G. Kulkarni, A.K. Dalai, N.N. Bakhshi, Transesterification of Canola Oil in Mixed Methanol/Ethanol System and Use of Esters as Lubricity Additive, Bioresource Technology, 98, (2007) 2027-2033.
  7. F.C. Silva, K.S.B. Cavalcante, H.C. Louzeiro, K.R. M. Moura, A.P Maciel, L.E.B. Soledade, A.G. Souza, Production of Biodiesel from Babassu Oil Using Methanol-Ethanol Blends, Eclética Química, 35 (2010) 47-54.
  8. C. Ofori-Boateng, E.M. Kwofie, M.Y. Mensah, Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Different Alkaline Catalysts on Biodiesel Yield, World Applied Sciences Journal, 16 (2012) 1445-1449.
  9. L. Schumacher, A. Chellappa, W. Wetherell, M.D. Russell, The Physical and Chemical Characterization of Biodiesel Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Blends, The National Biodiesel Board University of Missouri, 85 (1995).
  10. ASTM D 5555 – 95(2017), American Standards for Testing and Measurement, https://www.astm.org/Standards /D5555.htm 2017, 2017
  11. AOAC -2005, Official Methods of Analysis, 18th. ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, V. A , 2005
  12. V.J. Gerpen, B. Shanks, R. Pruszko, D. Clements, G. Knothe, Biodiesel Analytical Methods: August 2002--January 2004, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, (2004b) 37-47.
  13. M. Tariq, S. Ali, F. Ahmad, M. Ahmad, M. Zafar, N. Khalid, M.A. Khan, Identification, FT-IR, NMR (1 H and 13 C) and GC/MS Studies of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Biodiesel from Rocket Seed Oil, Fuel Processing Technology, 92 (2011) 336-341.
  14. S.K. Hoekman, A. Broch, C. Robbins, E. Ceniceros, M. Natarajan, Review of Biodiesel Composition, Properties, and Specifications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16 (2012) 143-169.
  15. X. Lang, A. K. Dalai, N. N. Bakhshi, M. J. Reaney, P. B. Hertz, Preparation and Characterization of Bio-Diesels from Various Bio-Oils, Bioresource Technology, 80 (2001) 53-62.
  16. E. Akbar, Z. Yaakob, S. K. Kamarudin, M. Ismail, J. Salimon, Characteristic and Composition of Jathropha Curcas Oil Seed from Malaysia and Its Potential as Biodiesel Feedstock, European Journal of Scientific Research, 29 (2009) 396-403.
  17. M. Canakci, H. Sanli, Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstock and their Effects on the Fuel Properties, Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 35 (2008) 431-441
  18. G. Knothe, J. Krahl, J. Van-Gerpen, The Biodiesel Handbook 2nd Edition, Urbana, United States of America. AOCS press, (2015)
  19. O.O. Oniya, A.I. Bamgboye, Production of Biodiesel from Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea, L.) Oil, Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 16 (2014) 143-150.
  20. S. Sinha, A.K. Agarwal, S. Garg, Biodiesel Development from Rice Bran Oil: Transesterification Process Optimization and Fuel Characterization, Energy Conversion and Management, 49 (2008) 1248-1257.
  21. H. Chen, D. Chen, Koppen Climate Classification. A diagnostic Tool to Quantify Climate Variation and Change, http://hanschen.org/koppen/#contact, 2017
  22. G. Knothe, Dependence of Biodiesel Fuel Properties on the Structure of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters. Fuel Processing Technology, 86 (2005) 1059-1070.
  23. U. Rashid, F. Anwar, Production of Biodiesel through Optimized Alkaline-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil, Fuel, 87 (2008) 265-273.
  24. M.N. Younis, M.S. Saeed, S. Khan, M.U. Furqan, R.U. Khan, M. Saleem, Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Waste and Vegetable Oils, Journal of Quality and Technology Management, 50 (2009) 111-121.

Downloads

PDF

Article Details

Volume 3, Issue 4, Year 2021

Published 2021-07-05

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

How to Cite

Bamgboye, I. A., & Iyidiobu, B. N. (2021). Effect of Catalyst Type on the Properties of Biodiesel from Jathropha and Moringa Oil Blend. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, 3(4), 52–58. https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2146

Plum Analytics