Masonry is possibly the primary construction element currently in widespread use throughout the world. Load-bearing masonry building is prevalent in developing countries for home construction. When properly constructed, masonry is frequently a more cost-effective and energy-efficient alternative to reinforced concrete for wall building. In addition to performing the dual roles of supporting weight and enclosing space, structural masonry boasts a high level of fire resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation, and exposure protection. The remarkable durability and low maintenance costs are further evident benefits. Masonry has a significant role in building construction, particularly in structures, as it is regarded as the primary component of the building. The eco-friendly solid block is prepared by adding the following by-products like coal ash, granite powder, olivine sand etc., all these ingredients used for manufacturing the solid block are waste materials from various industries. Thus, extensive testing is necessary to assess their load carrying capacity and secant modulus accurately. Masonry prisms were developed with five-layer solid blocks and tested for their stress-strain characteristics and secant modulus and the test outcomes were compared with conventional fly ash cement blocks.  Eco-friendly solid blocks offer a persuasive substitute for ecologically conscious approaches to building by preserving structural integrity and functionality while promoting sustainability.


Masonry Prism, Coal Ash, Olivine Sand, Stress-Strain and Secant Modulus,


Download data is not yet available.


  1. J. Thomas, (2006) Concrete block reinforced masonry wall panels subjected to out-of-plane monotonic lateral loading. Proceedings of National Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Engineering, Hyderabad, India.
  2. E. Kavitha, K. Vidhya, Strength and durability studies on sustainable eco-friendly green solid blocks, International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization, 42(9), (2022) 2551-2565. https://doi.org/10.1080/19392699.2021.2024174
  3. S. Barr, W.J. McCarter, B. Suryanto, Bond-strength performance of hydraulic lime and natural cement mortared sandstone masonry. Construction and Building Materials, 84, (2015) 128-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.03.016
  4. J.A. Thamboo, M. Dhanasekar, C. Yan, Flexural and shear bond characteristics of thin layer polymer cement mortared concrete masonry. Construction and Building Materials, 46, (2013) 104-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.04.002
  5. S.V. Deodhar, Strength of brick masonry prisms in compression. Journal of the Institution of Engineers. India. Civil Engineering Division, 81, (2000) 133-137.
  6. R. Lumantarna, D.T. Biggs, J. M. Ingham, Uniaxial compressive strength and stiffness of field-extracted and laboratory-constructed masonry prisms. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 26(4), (2014) 567-575. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000731
  7. F. Wu, G. Li, H.N. Li, J.Q. Jia, Strength and stress–strain characteristics of traditional adobe block and masonry. Materials and structures, 46, (2013) 1449-1457. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-012-9987-y
  8. N.N. Thaickavil, J. Thomas, Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 8, (2018) 23-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2017.12.007
  9. K.H. Mo, T.C. Ling, 2022. Utilization of coal fly ash and bottom ash in brick and block products. Low Carbon Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous Wastes, Elsevier, pp. 355-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-824004-5.00026-8
  10. W. Abbass, S. Abbas, F. Aslam, A. Ahmed, T. Ahmed, A. Hashir, A. Mamdouh, Manufacturing of Sustainable Untreated Coal Ash Masonry Units for Structural Applications. Materials, 15(11), (2022) 4003. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15114003
  11. S. Masuka, W. Gwenzi, T. Rukuni, Development, engineering properties and potential applications of unfired earth bricks reinforced by coal fly ash, lime and wood aggregates. Journal of Building Engineering, 18, (2018) 312-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.03.010
  12. S.B. Singh, P. Munjal, N. Thammishetti, Role of water/cement ratio on strength development of cement mortar. Journal of Building Engineering, 4, (2015) 94–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2015.09.003
  13. K. Gourav, B.V. Venkatarama Reddy, Characteristics of compacted fly ash bricks and fly ash brick masonry. Journal of Structural Engineering, 41(2), (2014) 144-157.
  14. C. Freeda Christy, D. Tensing, R. Mercy Shanthi, Experimental study on axial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the clay and fly ash brick masonry. Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology, 4(4), (2013) 134-141.
  15. F. Wu, G. Li, H.N. Li, J.Q. Jia, Strength and stress–strain characteristics of traditional adobe block and masonry. Materials and structures, 46, (2013) 1449-1457. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-012-9987-y
  16. T.C. Nwofor, Experimental determination of the mechanical properties of clay brick masonry. Canadian Journal of Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering, 3(3), (2012)127-145.
  17. K. Mosalam, L. Glascoe, J. Bernier, (2009) Mechanical properties of unreinforced brick masonry section 1. Lawrence Liver more National Laboratory, Livermore, California, united states. https://doi.org/10.2172/966219
  18. B.V. Venkatarama Reddy, Ch.V. Uday Vyas, Influence of shear bond strength on compressive strength and stress–strain characteristics of masonry. Materials and Structures. 41, (2008) 1697- 1712. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-008-9358-x
  19. M.B. Ravula, K.V.L. Subramaniam, Experimental investigation of compressive failure in masonry brick assemblages made with soft brick. Materials and Structures, 50(19), (2017) 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-016-0926-1
  20. K.S. Gumaste, K.S. Nanjunda Rao, B.V. Venkatarama Reddy, Strength and elasticity of brick masonry prisms and wallettes under compression. Material Structures 40, (2007) 241–253. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-006-9141-9
  21. G. Mohamad, P.B. Lourenço, H.R. Roman, (2007) Mechanics of hollow concrete block masonry prisms under compression: Review and prospects. Cement and Concrete Composites, 29(3), 181-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.11.003
  22. H.B. Kaushik, D.C. Rai, S.K. Jain, Stress-strain characteristics of clay brick masonry under uniaxial compression. Journal of materials in Civil Engineering, 19(9), (2007) 728-739. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2007)19:9(728)
  23. G. Sarangapani, B.V. Venkatarama Reddy, K.S. Jagadish, Brick-mortar bond and masonry compressive strength. ASCE Journal of Material Civil Engineering, 17(2), (2005) 229–237. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2005)17:2(229)
  24. IS 2185 (Part 1), (2005) Concrete Masonry Units — Specification. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.
  25. IS 2250, (1981) Code of Practice for Preparation and Use of Masonry Mortars, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), New Delhi, India
  26. ASTM C 1314-21, (2021) Standard test method for compressive strength of masonry prisms. West Conshohocken, United States.
  27. S.B. Singh, P. Munjal, Bond strength and compressive stress-strain characteristics of brick masonry, Journal of Building Engineering, 9, (2017) 10-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2016.11.006
  28. G.H. Nalon, C.F.R. Santos, L.G. Pedroti, J.C.L. Ribeiro, G.S. Veríssimo, F.A. Ferreira, Strength and failure mechanisms of masonry prisms under compression, flexure and shear: Components’ mechanical properties as design constraints, Journal of Building Engineering, 28(2019) 101038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2019.101038
  29. S.M. Dehghan, V. Baneshi, S. Yousefi Kahnooj, M.A. Najafgholipuor, Experimental Study on Effect of Brick and Mortar Types on Mechanical Properties of Masonry Prisms, Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, 8(11), (2022) 5-24. https://doi.org/10.22065/jsce.2021.252499.2259
  30. J.-H. Yu, J.-H. Park, Compressive and Diagonal Tension Strengths of Masonry Prisms Strengthened with Amorphous Steel Fiber-Reinforced Mortar Overlay, Applied Sciences 2021, 11, 5974. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11135974
  31. IS1905 :1987, Code of practice for structural use of unreinforced masonry, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) New Delhi, India
  32. M. Guadagnuolo, M Aurilio, A. Basile, G. Faella, Modulus of Elasticity and Compressive Strength of Tuff Masonry: Results of a Wide Set of Flat-Jack Tests. Buildings, 10, (2020) 84, https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10050084