Worldwide, information is needed about the social landscape management as there is no known studies that have documented how climate-smart landscape approaches improve soil and water status. In Sub-Saharan Africa, effective social landscape governance necessitates a certain amount of social capital, including trust and agreed-upon standards. Climate-smart landscapes are key to successful soil and water management but little effort have been made to critically improve effective soil and water resources. The study was guided by the specific objectives, which include examining equitable climate-smart landscapes and finding out the major challenges facing the implementation of climate-smart landscapes. Using "landscape governance" AND "climate smart landscape," 31 papers (31) were obtained from the Web of Science (WOS) and twenty-nine (27) from the Scopus databases using search engines from (1992-2022). On equitable climate-smart landscapes, it was found that multi-stakeholder participation in landscape management is an iterative and changing process that can assist in addressing and resolving disputes as well as facilitating fair negotiation procedures for underrepresented and minority groups. Proper planning and the implementation of a comprehensive planning framework that links various planning activities and decision-making processes are required for landscape approaches to be successful. The major challenges included policies and institutions, financial difficulties in the conservation of natural resources, and socio-economic issues. The novelty from this study is to inform policy makers on climate-smart landscape approaches to ease soil and water management.


Land leveling design, Profile method, Plane shape, Linear programming,


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