Linguistically, Tripura is a case of one dominant language and several minority languages. This study aims to identify the minority languages endemic to Tripura, with the objective of preserving and protecting the identified languages. The present study is based on the secondary data collected from the Census of India, 2011 and Ethnologue, 2024. The descriptive research method has been used to analyse the data. The study reveals that eight minority languages are enlisted by the Directorate of Kokborok and Other Minority Languages in Tripura. The eight languages are Kokborok, Manipuri, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Kuki-Mizo, Garo, Halam, Chakma and Mogh. Out of the eight minority languages enlisted by the said directorate of Tripura, Kokborok is the only language endemic to Tripura, and other minority languages have their language core areas outside the state. The core area of Kokborok is situated in Tripura, and the periphery areas are spread in the adjacent Indian states of Mizoram and Assam and Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh. However, the Kokborok language is a vulnerable minority language in its core area. The language speakers account for only 25.9 per cent of the total speakers in Tripura. Even after gaining official status on January 19, 1979, the Kokborok language is not widely used in educational institutions, official circulars, press, television, courts, and financial or social institutions, weakening language vitality. Therefore, considering the endemic character of the Kokborok language, meaning that the Kokborok language holds unique traits and adaptations to environmental conditions in the region, its minority status and low language vitality, the Kokborok language needs to be preserved and protected.


Kokborok Language, Minority Language, Endemic Language, Language Demographics, Language Dominance, Majority Language,


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