The current study focuses on an intriguing dichotomy seen in the Bangla (Bengali: Indo-Aryan) language, which centers on the desire predicates expressed by the term itʃtʃʰe ‘desire’. In the Bangla language, the desire predicate itʃtʃʰe can be used independently or in conjunction with the light verb hɔwa ‘happen’ to form the NV conjunct itʃtʃʰe hɔwa, indicating the occurrence of the desire. According to the scholarly works of Dasgupta (1989), Chatterjee (2014), and Butt (2010) the Bangla language exhibits the presence of composite verb formations, whereby a nonverb is combined with a verb. These formations involve the occurrence of a light verb with a noun, adjective, or adposition. The primary focus of this study will be on the differentiation between the bare verb itʃtʃʰe ‘desire’ and its usage in conjunction with the light verb forming itʃtʃʰe hɔwa. The distinction between them pertains to their embeddability qualities, namely the clausal complements they choose.


Desire Predicates, Clausal Dependency, Complex Predicates, Conjunct Verbs Illocutionary Force, Speech Acts, Syntax-Pragmatics Interface,


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Austin, J.L. (1975). How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198245537.001.0001
  2. Bach, K., & Harnish, R.M. (1979). Linguistic Communication and Speech Acts. MIT Press.
  3. Bayer, J. (1997). CP- Extraposition as Argument Shift. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Netherlands https://doi.org/10.1075/la.17.03bay
  4. Bayer, J. (1995). On the Origin of Sentential Arguments in German and Bengali. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic theory. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8416-6_2
  5. Bayer, J., & Dasgupta, P. (2016). Emphatic Topicalization and the Structure of the Left Periphery: Evidence from German and Bangla. Syntax : A Journal of Theoretical, Experimental and Interdisciplinary Research, 19 (4), 309-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/synt.12125
  6. Bhattacharya, T. (1998). Subjunctive in Bangla The syntax. In A. Giorgi, J. Higginbotham, & F. Pianesi (Ed.), Mood and Tense, Bergamo. Oxford University Press.
  7. Butt, M. (2010). 3 - The light verb jungle: still hacking away. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511712234.004
  8. Chatterjee, T. (2014). Bilingual Complex Verbs: So what's new about them? Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. BLS by the Linguistic Society of America, (38) 47-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/bls.v38i0.3319
  9. Chatterji, S.K. (1926). The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language. Calcutta University Press, India.
  10. Dasgupta, P. (1989). A dependency syntax of Bangla. Metataxis in Practice: Dependency Syntax for Multilingual Machine Translation, 89. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110874174.89
  11. Dasgupta, P. (1996). Remarks on Subjunctivity. In R. Srivastava, Perspectives on Language in Society, Delhi.
  12. Davison, A. (2005). Phrasal predicates: How N combines with V in Hindi/Urdu. Yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics, 83-116.
  13. Ferguson, C. A. (1967). Verbs of 'being' in Bengali. In J. W. Verhaar, The verb 'be' and Its Synonyms (Vol. 14, pp. 74-114 ). Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
  14. Ghosh, S.S., & Mukherjee, S. (2023). On the Status of Bangla Particle abar. Jadavpur Journal of Languages and Linguistics , 5 (2), 35-54.
  15. Heim, I., & Kratzer, A. (1998). Semantics in generative grammar. Blackwell Publishers, United States.
  16. Heim, I. (1992). Presupposition Projection and the Semantics of Attitude Verbs. Journal of Semantics, 9 (3), 183-221. https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/9.3.183
  17. Harner, H. (2016). Focus and the semantics of desire predicates and directive verbs. Georgetown University, Washington
  18. Karmakar, S., & Ghosh, S.S. (2016). Syntax and Pragmatics of Conversation: A case of Bangla. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Processing NLP Association of India, 65-70.
  19. Kearns, K. (2011). Semantics. Macmillan.
  20. Kratzer, A. (1996). Severing the External Argument from its Verb. Phrase Structure and the Lexicon, Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8617-7_5
  21. Norrick, N.R. (1978). Expressive illocutionary acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 2(3), 227-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(78)90005-X
  22. Portner, P., & Rubinstein, A. (2020). Desire, belief, and semantic composition: variation in mood selection with desire predicates. Natural Language Semantics , 28 343-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11050-020-09167-7
  23. Rayhan, S. (2016). Mood and Modality in Bangla : A Morpho-syntactic Investigation of Subjunctive Construction. The Dhaka University Journal of Linguistics. 7, 157-178.
  24. Rizzi, L. (1997). The fine Structure of the Left Periphery. Element of Grammar, Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5420-8_7
  25. Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect Speech Acts. In P. Cole, & J. L. Morgan, Syntax and Semantics : Speech Acts (pp. 59-82). New York Academic Press.
  26. Searle, J.R. (1969). Speech acts - an essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom.
  27. Searle, J.R., & Vanderveken, D. (1985). Foundations of Illocutionary Logic. Cambridge University Press. United Kingdom.
  28. Thompson, H.R. (2004). Toward a definitve grammar of Bengali: A practical study and critique of research on selected grammatical structures. University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, United Kingdom.
  29. Villalta, E. (2008). Mood and gradibility: an investigation of the subjunctive mood in Spanish. Linguistics and Philosophy, 31, 467-552. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10988-008-9046-x