Fatty acid profile, antioxidant and antibacterial effect of the ethyl acatate extract of cleistopholis patens

Daniels A.O
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Taye Temikotan
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Achievers University, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Dimensions

Plum Analytics

Abstract

Cleistopholis patens is a tropical plant that is used in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal infections. In this study, the antibacterial action against some human pathogens and the fatty acid profile of the plant were investigated. The plant was found to be active against Salmonella typhi Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus while Shigella dysenteriae was resistant. The comparative antibiotic test revealed that only Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamycin. The purified extract showed lesser activity than the crude extract.  Phytochemical components include; glycosides, steroids, Phenol, tanins and saponins. Anticonstituents include tanin (2.32mg/g), phenol (2.50 mg/g), phytate (15.65 mg/g), oxalate (6.57 mg/g), saponin (9.71 mg/g) and flavonoids (6.49 mg/g). The GCMS profile of the ethyl acetate extract of the plant revealed 23 fatty acid including 9-Hexadecanoic acid, (25.11%), 6 octadecanoic acid (21.98%), n Hexadecanoic (4.62%), Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.05%). Heptacosanoic acid, methyl ester (2.05%), Decanoic acid, methyl ester (1.74%), Oleic acid (4.38%), 16-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (3.55%) amongst others.

Keywords

  • Cleistopholis patens,
  • Antibacterial,
  • Phytochemicals,
  • Fatty acids,
  • Antinutrients

References

  1. Z.M. Rashid, A. M. Ali, P. Douzenel, N. Bourgougnon, K. Shaari, Y. Andriani, T.S.T. Muhammad, H. Mohamad, Phenolics, fatty acids composition and biological activities of various extracts and fractions of Malaysian Aaptos Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 8 (2018) 554-564. DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.245971
  2. E. Karimi, H. Z. Jaafar, A. Ghasemzadeh, M. Ebrahimi, Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, Biological research, 48 (2015) 1-6.
  3. A.P. Desbois, V.J. Smith, Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 85 (2010)1629–42. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-009-2355-3
  4. R. Tavakoli, M. Mohadjerani, R. Hosseinzadeh, M. Tajbakhsh, A. Naqinezhad, Essential?Oil and Fatty?Acid Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Ficaria kochii, Chemistry & biodiversity, 9 (2012) 2732-2741. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201100389
  5. C. Agyare, A.S. Dwobeng, N. Agyepong, Y.D. Boakye, K.B. Mensah, P.G. Ayande, M. Adarkwa-Yiadom, Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and wound healing properties of Kigelia Africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC. Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences,10 (2013). DOI: 10.1155/2013/692613
  6. B. Verdcourt. (1971). Flora of Tropical East Africa. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  7. B. Sultana, F. Anwar, M. Ashraf, Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts, Molecules, 14 (2009) 2167-2180.
  8. A. Pandey, S. Tripathi, Concept of standardization, extraction and pre phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2 (2014) 115-119.
  9. O. O. Odebiyi, E. A. Sofowora, (1978) Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants II, Lloydia, 41 (3) 234-246.
  10. W.C. Evans, (2009) Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy 16th Edition, Elsevier.
  11. A. Banso, J.E. Ngbede, Phytochemical screening and in vitro antifungal properties of Fagara zanthoxyloides. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 4 (2006) 8-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1234/4.2006.905
  12. P. Cosa, A.J. Vlietinck, D.V. Berghe, L. Maes, Anti-infective potential of natural products: How to develop a stronger in vitro ‘proof-of-concept’, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 106 (2006) 290–302. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.003
  13. D. Srinivasan, S. Nathan, T. Suresh, P. Lakshmana, Perumalsamy, Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 74 (2001) 217-220.
  14. A.W. Bauer, W.M.W. Wirby, J.C. Sherris, M. Turck, Antibiotic susceptibility test by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 36 (1966) 493-496.
  15. M.K. Wo?niak, L. Laura Banaszkiewicz, M. Marek Wiergowski, E. Ewa Tomczak, M. Kata, B. Szpiech, J. Namie?nik, M. Biziuk1,. Development and validation of a GC–MS/MS method for the determination of 11 amphetamines and 34 synthetic cathinones in whole blood, Forensic Toxicology, 38 (2020) 42-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-019-00485-y
  16. J. Jakopic, F. Stampar, R. Veberic, The influence of exposure to light on the phenolic content of ‘Fuji’apple, Scientia Horticulturae, 123 (2009) 234-239. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2009.09.004
  17. O.T. Osuntokun, Evaluation of Inhibitory Zone Diameter (IZD), Phytochemical Screening, Elemental Composition and Proximate Analysis of Crude Cleistopholis Patens (Benth.) on Infectious Clinical Isolates, Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis, 9 (2018) 1-9. doi: 10.4172/2155-9929.1000385.
  18. P. Rasoanaivo, C. W. Wright, M. L. Willcox, B. Gilbert, Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions, Malaria journal, 10 (2011)1-12.
  19. H. Wagner, G. Ulrich-Merzenich, Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals and Phytomedicine. 16 (2009) 97–110. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.12.018
  20. A. J. McBain, R. G. Bartolo, C. E. Catrenich, D. Charbonneau, R. G. Ledder, P. Gilbert, Growth and molecular characterization of dental plaque microcosms, Journal of applied microbiology, 94 (2003) 655-664. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01876.x
  21. E. O. Morente, M. A. Fernández-Fuentes, M. J. G. Burgos, H. Abriouel, R. P. Pulido, A. Galvez, Biocide tolerance in bacteria, International journal of food microbiology, 162 (2013) 13-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.12.028
  22. G. McDonnell, A. D. Russell, Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance, Clinical microbiology reviews, 12 (1999) 147-179. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.12.1.147
  23. S. Mamta, S. Jyoti, N. Rajeev, S. Dharmendra, G. Abhishek, Phytochemistry of medicinal plants, Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, l (2013)168-182,
  24. Richard Cammack, Teresa Atwood, Peter Campbell, Howard Parish, Anthony Smith, Frank Vella, John Stirling, (2008) Oxford dictionary of biochemistry and molecular biology, Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780198529170.001.0001
  25. H.F. Gemede, N. Ratta Antinutritional factors in plant foods: potential health benefits and adverse effects, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 3 (2014)2 84-289.
  26. Oakenfull, D, and Sidhu G. S. (1989). Saponins: In Toxicants of plant origin, Vol. II, Glycosides. 97.
  27. C. Nieman, Influence of trace amounts of fatty acids on the growth of microorganisms, Bacteriological Reviews, 18 (1954)147-163.
  28. T. Tyagi, M. Agarwal, Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) solms, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6 (2017)195-206.
  29. H. R. Knapp, M. A. Melly, Bactericidal effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 154 (1986) 84-94. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/154.1.84
  30. K.B. Yoon, A. Joshua, J.A. Jackman, E.R. Valle-González, N.J. Cho, Antibacterial Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides: Biological Activities, Experimental Testing, and Therapeutic Applications, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19 (2018) 1114. DOI: 10.3390/ijms19041114
  31. M.P. Cerdeiras, J. Fernández, M. Soubes, S. Vero, F. Ferreira, P. Moyna, I. Olano, A. Vázquez, A new antibacterial compound from Ibicella lutea, Journal of Ethnopharmacology,73 (2000) 521–525. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-8741(00)00339-1
  32. F. Dilika, P.D. Bremner, J. J. M. Meyer, Antibacterial activity oflinoleic and oleic acids isolated from Helichrysum pedunculatum: a plant used during circumcision rites, Fitoterapia, 71 (2000) 450–452. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00150-7
  33. L. J. McGaw, A. K. Jäger, J. Van Staden, Isolation of antibacterial fatty acids from Schotia brachypetala, Fitoterapia, 73 (2002) 431-433. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00120-X
  34. B.T.S. Yff, K.L. Lindsey, M.B. Taylor, D.G. Erasmus, A.K. Jäger, Thepharmacological screening of Pentanisia prunelloides and the isolation of the antibacterial compound palmitic acid. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 79 (2002) 101–107. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-8741(01)00380-4
  35. J.B. Harborne, H. Baxter, (1993) Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids. In: Taylor, Phytochemical Dictionary, Bristol, 255-266.
  36. C.W. Sheu, E. Freese, Lipopolysaccharide layer protection of Gram-negative bacteria against inhibition by long-chain fatty acids, Journal of Bacteriology, 115 (1973) 869-875.
  37. J. J. Kabara, Food-grade chemicals for use in designing food preservative systems, Journal of Food Protection, 44 (1981) 633-647.

Downloads

PDF

Article Details

Volume 3, Issue 1, Year 2021

Published 2021-02-07

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

How to Cite

A.O, D., & Temikotan, T. (2021). Fatty acid profile, antioxidant and antibacterial effect of the ethyl acatate extract of cleistopholis patens. Bulletin of Scientific Research, 3(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.34256/bsr2113