In this study, researcher is trying to investigate whether status and conspicuousness are two different constructs in measuring brand prestige utilizing new luxury market as a reference point. In other words, the attempt will determine if consumers can differentiate between the perceived status and perceived conspicuousness of the brands in product category (luxury car brands) selected in the Sri Lankan context. According to many research studies, revealed some of the evidence that these two dimensions are distinct constructs, nevertheless this was limiting in terms of the sample used (students), the methodology (confirmatory factor analysis only), the scope of the product categories and the context of the study conducted (Western countries). The current study is an extension to O’Cass and Frost (2004) study by using the real consumers as a sample (300 respondence). Exploratory factor analysis was performed among nine brands of luxury and semi luxury car brands in Sri Lankan context.


Branding, Conspicuous Consumption, Luxury, New Luxury, Status,


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Amaldoss, W., & Jain, S. (2005). Conspicuous consumption and sophisticated thinking, Management Science, 51(10), 1449–1466. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1050.0399
  2. Barrett, P.T., & Kline, P. (1981). The observation to variable ratio in factor analysis. Personality Study and Group Behavior, 1, 23–33.
  3. Bartholomew, D.J., & Knott, M. (1999) Latent variable models and factor analysis (2nd ed.).London: Arnold/New York: Oxford University Press.
  4. Bearden, W. O., Netemeyer, R. G. and Teel, J. E. (1989) ‘Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence’, Journal of Consumer Research, 15, March, 473–481. https://doi.org/10.1086/209186
  5. Bernheim,D.B.(1994). A Theory of conformity. Journal of Political Economy.102(05)
  6. Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, Routledge, London, UK
  7. Dubois, B., & Paternault, C. (1995). Observations: Understanding the world of international luxury brands: The ‘dream formula’. Journal of Advertising Research, 35(4),69–76.
  8. Eastman, J. K., Fredenberger, B., Campbell, D., & Calver, S. (1997). The relationship between status consumption and materialism: A cross-cultural comparison of Chinese, Mexican, and American students. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 5(1), 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.1997.11501750
  9. Eastman, J. K., Goldsmith, R.E., & Flynn, L.R. (1999). Status consumption in consumer behavior: Scale development and validation. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice,7(3), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.1999.11501839
  10. Echikson, William (1994), “The Return of Luxury,” Fortune, October 17, 18.
  11. Ferber, R. (1977). Editorial: Research by convenience. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(1),57–58. https://doi.org/10.1086/208679
  12. Ferstman, C. and Weiss, Y. (1992) ‘Social status, culture and economic performance’, Mimeo, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
  13. Fiske, N., & Silverstein, M. (2004). Trading up: Trends, brands, and practices 2004 research update. Retrieved 7 November 2006, from http://www.bcg.com/publications/publications_search_results.jsp?PUBID51120
  14. Goldsmith, R., Flynn, L. and Eastman, J. (1996) ‘Status consumption and fashion behaviour: An exploratory study’, Association of Marketing Theory and Practice Proceedings, Hilton Head, SC, 309–316
  15. Goldsmith, R., Moore, M. and Beaudoin, P. (1999) ‘Fashion innovativeness and self-concept: A replication’, Journal of Product and Brand Management, 8 (1), 7–18. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610429910257904
  16. Gorusch, R.L. (1983) Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  17. Gould, S. and Barak, B. (1988) ‘Public self-consciousness and consumption behaviour’, Journal of Social Psychology, 128 (3), 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1988.9713756
  18. Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. (2018). Advanced Issues in Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage.
  19. Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-step approach to using the SASH System for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
  20. Huber, J., & Holbrook, M.B. (1979). Using attribute ratings for product positioning: Some distinctions among compositional approaches. Journal of Marketing Research,16(November), 507–515. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150811
  21. Ireland, N. (1992) ‘On limiting the market for status signals’, Mimeo, University of Warwick, UK, February
  22. Kairser, S. B. (1990) The Social Psychology of Apparel, 2nd edn., Macmillan, New York, NY.
  23. Kilsheimer, J. C. (1993). Status Consumption: The Development and Status Implications of a Scale Measuring the Motivation to Consume for Status, A Dissertation submitted to the Marketing Faculty at Florida State University.
  24. Lim, K., and O'Cass, A. ( 2001). Consumer brand classifications: An assessment of culture-of-origin versus country-of-origin. Journal of Product & Brand Management. 10(2). https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420110388672
  25. Luxury Institute. (2007). The luxury consumer market: A wealth of opportunity. Retrieved 17 September 2007 from, http://www.luxuryinstitute.com/pdfs/Luxury_Institute_The_ Luxury_Consumer_Market.pdf
  26. Marcoux, J., Filiatrault, P. and Cheron, E. (1997) ‘The attitudes underlying preferences of young urban educated Polish consumers towards products made in western countries’, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 9 (4), 5–29. https://doi.org/10.1300/J046v09n04_02
  27. Mason, R.S. (1998). The economics of conspicuous consumption: Theory and thought since 1700. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
  28. Mason, R.S. (2001). Conspicuous consumption: A literature review. European Journal of Marketing, 18(3), 26–39. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004779
  29. Nueno, J.L., & Quelch, J.A. (1998). The mass marketing of luxury. Business Horizons, 41(6),61–68.
  30. Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
  31. O’Cass, A., & Frost, H. (2004). Exploring consumer status and conspicuous consumption. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4(1), 25–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.155
  32. Shermach, K. (1997). What consumers wish brand managers knew. Marketing News, 31(12).
  33. Silverstein, M., & Fiske, N. (2003). Luxury for the masses. Harvard Business Review, 81(4), 48–57.
  34. Silverstein, M., & Fiske, N. (2005). Trading up: Why consumers want new luxury goods, and how companies create them. (rev. ed.). New York: Portfolio.
  35. Truong ,Y., Simmons, G., McColl, R., & Kitchen, P.J. (2008). Status and Conspicuousness – Are They Related? Strategic Marketing Implications for Luxury Brands. Journal of Strategic Marketing. 16(3), 189-203. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652540802117124
  36. Twitchell, J.B. (2002). Living it up: Our love affair with luxury. New York: Columbia University Press.
  37. Veblen, T.B. (1899). The theory of the leisure class. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  38. Vickers, J.S., & Renand, F. (2003). The marketing of luxury goods: An exploratory study. Marketing Review, 3(4), 459–478. https://doi.org/10.1362/146934703771910071
  39. Vigneron, F., & Johnson, L.W. (1999). A review and a conceptual framework of prestige-seeking consumer behavior. Retrieved 20 January 2006, from http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/amsrev/theory/vigneron01-99.html
  40. Vigneron, F., & Johnson, L.W. (2004). Measuring perceptions of brand luxury. Journal of Brand Management, 11(6), 484–506. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540194