This is a case review of a male adult, GO, with nonverbal low functioning autism in his twenties. Previous psycho-educational assessment indicated that GO had a nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) of 73 within the borderline range, an adaptive behavior composite score at the extremely low percentile rank, and poor executive functioning (EF) capability with majority of the EF components falling in the performance range from borderline problem to problematic range. His family has expressed their concern if GO would be able to take care of himself when they are too old or no longer around to care for him. This short paper is an attempt to review all the previous assessment results and to find out if GO could be helped to improve in his daily living skills in order to lead a more independent life in the future.


Adaptive Behavior, Autism, Executive Function,


Metrics Loading ...


  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, VA.
  2. MentalHelp.net (2019). Adaptive behavior (Life skills).Retrievedfrom: https://www.mentalhelp.net/intellectual-disabilities/adaptive-behavior-life-skills/.
  3. Bayley N., (1993). Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd Edition (BSID-2). Psychological Corporation, New York, NY.
  4. Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., & Schopler, E., (1989) Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19(2) 185–212.
  5. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P.C., & Risi, S., (2000). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd Edition (ADOS-2). Western Psychological Services, Torrance, CA.
  6. Bondy, A.S., & Frost, L.A., (1994), The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 9(3) 1-19.
  7. Bondy, A.S., & Frost, L.A., (2001), The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Behavior Modification, 25(5) 725-744.
  8. Chia, K.H., (2012). Psychogogy, Pearson Education, Singapore
  9. Brown, L., Sherbenou, R.J., & Johnsen, S.K., (1997). Test of nonverbal intelligence-3rd edition (TONI-3). Pro-Ed, Austin, TX.
  10. Brown C., & Dunn, W., (2002). Sensory Profile-Adolescent/Adult (SP-A/A). Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  11. Dunn, W., (1999). Sensory Profile-Caregiver Questionnaire (SP-OQ). Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX.
  12. Dunn, W., (1999). Sensory Profile-Summary Score Sheet (SP-SS). Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  13. Pearson, N.A., Patton, J.R., & Mruzek, D.W., (2016). Adaptive Behavior Diagnostic Scale (ABDS). Pro-Ed, Austin, TX.
  14. DuPaul, G., Power, T., Anastopoulos, A., & Reid, R., (1998). ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. Guilford Press, New York, NY.
  15. Gilliam, J.E., (2013). Giliam Autism Rating Scale-Third Edition (GARS-3). Western Psychological Services, Torrance, CA
  16. Newton, M., & Thomson, M., (1982). Aston Index-Revised: A classroom test for screening and diagnosis of language difficulties (age from 5 to 14 years). Learning Development Aids, Cambs, UK.
  17. Neale, M.D., (1997). Neale Analysis of Reading Ability-2nd Edition (NARA-2): Manual for schools. GL Assessment, London, UK.
  18. DiLavore, P., Lord, C., & Rutier, M., Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (PL-ADOS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25 (1995): 355-279.
  19. Rutter, M., LeCouteur, A., & Lord, C., Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R): A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 24(5) (1994): 659-685.
  20. World Health Organization (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  21. Cooijams, P., (2005). Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and real-life functioning. Retrieved from: http://paulcooijmans.com/intelligence/iq_ranges.html.
  22. Exkorn, K.S., (2005). The autism sourcebook: Everything you need to know from a mother whose child recovered. Reagan Books, New York, NY.
  23. Dunn, W., (2006). Sensory Profile-Supplement (SP-Supple). Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  24. Luminet, O., Bagby, R.M., & Taylor, G.J., (2018). Alexithymia: Advances in research, theory, and clinical practice. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
  25. Brewer, R., Cook, R., & Bird, G., (2016). Alexithymia: A general deficit of interoception. Royal Society Open Science, 3, 150664.
  26. Xie, G.H., A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) based screener for autistic spectral symptoms. Asian Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2(3) (2019): 97-107.
  27. Zuckerman, M., Eysenck, S.B.J., & Eysenck, H.J., (1978) Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(1) 139-149.
  28. Zuckerman, M., Kolin, E.A., Price, L., & Zoob, I., (1964), Development of a sensation-seeking scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28(6) 477-482.
  29. Larsen R.J. ,& Buss D.M., (2008). Personality psychology: Domains of knowledge about human nature (3rd ed.). McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
  30. Zuckerman, M., (2009). Chapter 31: Sensation seeking. In M.R. Leary & R.H. Hoyle (eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp.455-465). The Guildford Press, New York, NY.
  31. Masson, M., Lamoureux, J., & de Guise, E., (2019). Self-reported risk-taking and sensation-seeking behavior predict helmet wear amongst Canadian ski and snowboard instructors. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs0000153
  32. Bal, V.H., Kim, S.H., Cheong, D., & Lord, C., (2015), Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 19(7) 774-784.
  33. Cohen, J., et al. (2005). Helping young children succeed: Strategies to promote early childhood social and emotional development. Washington, DC: National Conference of State Legislatures and Zero to Three.
  34. National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (Winter, 2004). Children’s emotional development is built into the architecture of their brains. Working Paper No. 2. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  35. Dyck, M., Ferguson, K., & Shochet, I., (2001), Do autism spectrum disorders differ from each other and from non-spectrum disorders on emotion recognition tests? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10, 105–116.
  36. Chia K.H., & Chua, C.K., A brief examination of an autistic mind: From mindsight to mindblindness, from mindfulness to mindlessness. Unlimited Human! (Spring, 2014): 4-7.
  37. Kronenberger, W.G., Castellanos, I., & Pisoni, D.B., (2016) Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning Case studies. Applied Neuropsychology in Children, 13, 1-11.
  38. Kercood, S., Grskovic, J.A., Banda, D., & Begeske, J., (2014), Working memory and autism: A review of literature. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(10), 1316-1332.
  39. Grossman H.J., (Ed.) (1973). Manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation. American Association on Mental Deficiency, Washington, DC.
  40. Dunn, W., The impact of sensory processing abilities on the daily lives of young children and their families. Infants and Young Children, 9 (1997): 23-35.
  41. Gilotty, L., Kenworthy, L., Sirian, L., Black, D.O., & Wagner, A.E., (2002), Adaptive skills and executive function in autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8(4) 241–248