The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the economic status (i.e., Economically Disadvantaged, Not Economically Disadvantaged) of Grade 3 Hispanic students and Black students was related to their reading achievement.  Texas statewide data on the state-mandated reading assessment for the 2015-2016 school year were analyzed.  Inferential statistical procedures, used on statewide archival data, revealed statistically significant differences as a function of poverty for Hispanic and Black students.  Statistically significantly lower percentages of students of color who were economically disadvantaged met the three Phase-in standards on the state-mandated reading assessment than their counterparts who were not economically disadvantaged.  Given the importance of strong reading skills at Grade 3, our results are cause for concern.  Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.


PEIMS, Texas, Grade 3, STAAR, Economic Status, Black Students, Hispanic Students,


Metrics Loading ...


  1. D. Berliner, Rational responses to high stakes testing: The case of curriculum narrowing and the harm that follows, Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(2011) 287-302.
  2. W.P. Hong, P. Youngs, Does high stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students? Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 16(2008) 1-17.
  3. M. Lacour, L.D. Tissington, The effects of poverty on academic achievement, Educational Research and Reviews, 6(2011) 522-527.
  4. K.M. Lee, J.R. Slate, Differences in advanced achievement outcomes for Texas students as a function of economic disadvantage, Journal of Education Research, 8(2014) 137-149.
  5. E. Saez, (2016) Striking it richer: The evolution of top incomes in the United States (Updated with 2015 preliminary estimates), Department of Economics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA. Retrieved from: https://eml.berkeley.edu/~saez/saez-UStopincomes-2015.pdf
  6. L. Harris, (2018) Differences in the reading performance of Texas grade 4 students as a function of economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race: A multiyear statewide investigation, Doctoral Dissertation, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX.
  7. J.A. McGown, (2016) Differences in reading performance of Texas elementary school students as a function of economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race: A multiyear statewide study, Doctoral Dissertation, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX.
  8. C. Rothert, (2005) Achievement gaps and No Child Left Behind, Retrieved from https://youthlaw.org/publication/achievement-gaps-and-no-child-left-behind/print/
  9. J. Vasquez Heilig, L. Darling-Hammond, Accountability Texas-style: The progress and learning of urban minority students in a high-stakes testing context, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(2008) 75-110.
  10. National Center for Children in Poverty, (2017) Putting research to work for children and families, Retrieved from: http://www.nccp.org/profiles/TX_profile_7.html
  11. Center on Educational Policy, (2006) From the capitol to the classroom: Year 5 of the No Child Left Behind Act, Washington, DC.
  12. J. McMurrer, (2007) Choices, changes, and challenges: Curriculum and instruction in the NCLB era, Center on Education Policy, Washington, DC. Accessed From: https://www.cep-dc.org/displayDocument.cfm?DocumentID=312
  13. A. Reyes, Texas state compensatory education, Journal of Education Finance, 31(2006) 221-237.
  14. R.B. Johnson, L.B. Christensen, (2017) Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (6th ed.), SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, CA.
  15. Texas Education Agency, (2018a) STAAR performance labels and policy definitions, Retrieved from https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/STAAR_Performance_Labels_and_Policy_Definitions.pdf
  16. Texas Education Agency. (2018b). Texas Academic Performance report comprehensive glossary. Retrieved from https://rptsvr1.tea.texas.gov/perfreport/tapr/2018/glossary.pdf
  17. V.H. Burney, J.R. Beilke, The constraints of poverty on high achievement, Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 31(2008) 171-197.
  18. J.R. Slate, A. Rojas-LeBouef, (2011) Calculating basic statistical procedures in SPSS: A self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts, NCPEA Press, Ypsilanti, MI.
  19. J. Cohen, (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
  20. Texas Commission on Public School Finance, (2018) Funding for impact: Equitable funding for those who need it the most. Retrieved from: https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/Texas%20Commission%20on%20Public%20School%20Finance%20Final%20Report.pdf
  21. Texas Education Agency, (2019b) House Bill 3, Retrieved from https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/HB3_2-Pager.pdf
  22. D.J. Hernandez, (2011) Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty influence high school graduation, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Albany, NY. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED518818.pdf
  23. J. Pikulski, Is reading best taught as a separate subject? The Reading Teacher, 31(1978) 777-779