Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity. Objective was to determine magnitude of resilience among Grade 10 Sinhala conversant adolescents in state schools of Gampaha district. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted. Computed final sample size was 1380. All three stages of cluster sampling were conducted applying probability sampling techniques to obtain the final sample. Study instrument comprised 14-Item Resilience Scale-Sinhala version. Magnitude of resilience was described as proportions and expressed as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall resilience score ranged from 15 to 98. The median was 79.00 (IQR: 70.00-86.00). Levels of magnitude were: High 11.6% (n=159; 95%CI=9.9–13.3), Moderately high 29.3% (n=405; 95%CI=27.0-31.8), Moderate 25.5% (n=352; 95%CI=23.2-27.9), Lower end 20.2% (n=279; 95%CI=18.2–22.5), Low 7.8% (n=108; 95%CI=6.4–9.3) and Very low 5.6% (n=77; 95%CI=4.4-6.9). Latter three low levels together comprised one third of the adolescents. Recommend a psycho-behavioral intervention to enhance resilience.


Adolescents, 14-Item Resilience Scale, Psycho-behavioral intervention, Resilience, Resilience levels,


Metrics Loading ...


  1. Abiola, T., & Udofia O. (2011). Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale in Kano, Nigeria. BMC Research Notes, 509, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-509
  2. Aiena, B.J., Baczwaski, B.J., Schulenberg, S.E., Buchanan, E.M. (2015). Measuring resilience with the RS-14: a tale of two samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(3), 291–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2014.951445
  3. American Psychological Association, (2014). The Road to Resilience. American Psychological Association, Washington.
  4. Damásio, B.F., Borsa, J.C., & da Silva, J.P. (2011). 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14): Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian Version, Journal of Nursing Measurement, 19(3), 131-45. https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-3749.19.3.131
  5. Dumont, M., & Provost, M.A. (1999). Resilience in Adolescents: Protective Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, Self-Esteem, and Social Activities on Experience of Stress and Depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(3), 343-363. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021637011732
  6. Earvolino-Ramirez, M. (2007). Resilience: A Concept Analysis. Nursing Forum, 42(2), 73-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.2007.00070.x
  7. Gomez, M., Vincent, A., Toussaint, L.L. (2013). Correlates of Resilience in Adolescents and Adults. International Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health, 1(1), 18-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.2007.00070.x
  8. Lee, E.E., Martin, A.S., Tu,X., Palmer, B.W., & Jeste, D.V. (2018). Childhood adversity and Schizophrenia: the protective role of resilience in mental and physical health and metabolic markers. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 79(3), 2559. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17m11776
  9. Leys C., Arnal C., Robin W., Heidi R., Ilios K., Pierre F., (2020). Perspectives on resilience: personality trait or skill?, European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 4(2), 100074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejtd.2018.07.002
  10. Luthar, S.S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543-562. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00164
  11. MacLeod, S., Musich, S., Hawkins, K., Alsgaard, K., & Wicker, E.R. (2016). The impact of resilience among older adults. Geriatric nursing, 37(4), 266–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2016.02.014
  12. Mestre, J.M., Núñez-Lozano, J.M., Gómez-Molinero, R., Zayas, A., & Guil, R. (2017). Emotion regulation ability and resilience in a sample of adolescents from a suburban area. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01980
  13. Munasinghe K. (2012). Adaptation and validation of the Resilience Scale on Sinhala speaking adolescents attending school in the Kandy District. Faculty of Graduate studies, University of Colombo.
  14. Nishi, D., Uehara, R., Kondo, M., & Matsuoka, Y. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version. BMC Research Notes, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-3-310
  15. Nourian, M., Shahbolaghi M., Tabrizi, K., Rassouli, M., & Biglarrian, A. (2016). The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 11(1), 30485. https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v11.30485
  16. Olsson, C.A., Bond, L., Burns, J.M., Vella-Brodrick, D.A., & Sawyer, S.M. (2003). Adolescent resilience: a concept analysis. Journal of adolescence, 26(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1971(02)00118-5
  17. Scali, J., Gandubert, C., Ritchie, K., Soulier, M., Ancelin, M.L., & Chaudieu, I. (2012). Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor- Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders. PlosOne, 7(6), e39879. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039879
  18. Singh, R., Mahato, S., Singh, B., Thapa, J., & Gartland, D. (2019). Resilience In Nepalese Adolescents: Socio-Demographic Factors Associated With Low Resilience. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 12, 893–902. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S226011
  19. Taylor, S., & Brown, J. (1988). Illusion and well - being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103(2), 193-210. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.193
  20. Wagnild, G.M. (2009). The Resilience Scale User's Guide for the US English version of The Resilience Scale and The 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14). The Resilience Center, USA.
  21. Wagnild, G.M., & Young, H.M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of nursing measurement, 1(2), 165–178.
  22. WHO, (2019). WHO fact sheet on Adolescents: Health risks and solutions. WHO.
  23. Zolkoski, S.M., & Bullock, L.M. (2012). Resilience in children and youth: a review. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 2295–2303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.08.009